Surveying households for social protection in Indonesia
To set the targets of the social assistance programmes, the Government of Indonesia established a ‘Unified Database’ of poor families but, as it stands, there is not a sufficiently dynamic and participatory method of updating it. To rectify this, Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (TNP2K) is developing an On Demand Application mechanism (Mekanisme Pemutakhiran Mandiri [MPM]). The MPM is designed to enable the poor to actively nominate themselves as programmes’ beneficiaries, and subsequently receive equal and standardised treatment to determine their eligibility.
To obtain the information needed, TNP2K, through MAHKOTA programme, commissioned OPML Indonesia to conduct a survey of those households registered in the Data Terpadu PPFM and nominated as future beneficiaries of social protection programmes. The data obtained from the survey will be used to document any early implementation issues, as well as potential improvements to the implementation, and evaluate whether the early screening and verification processes, including screening and verification instruments, are sufficient to select households to be included in bottom 40% with the lowest economic status.
The Unified Database was initiated in 2008 through the Social Protection Program Data Collection (PPLS), and updated subsequently in 2011 and 2015. This data contains detailed information about the status and condition of poor and vulnerable households to be used as the basis for determining the types of social assistance for those households. The database contains the names and addresses of 40% of people with the lowest welfare status in Indonesia. Since this data is very dynamic (due to frequent changes in the condition of households, such as changes caused by births/deaths or relocations/movement), data updating needs to be conducted regularly by the government in order to capture such dynamics.
We developed and administered a survey to 2,600 households in eight provinces across Indonesia, using CAPI (computer assisted personal interviewing) technology. The survey focused on verifying and assessing the household eligibility to be included in the database by measuring household composition, source of income, household assets, housing conditions, etc. We were responsible for the design of the CAPI instruments, piloting of the instruments, developing training manuals, training of fieldwork personnel, data collection and management, quality assurance of the data collection, and data management and cleaning.
The project is expected to support the national government to evaluate the new approach in selecting households to be included in the database of poor and vulnerable households for the social protection/assistance programme. It is also intended to evaluate the involvement of local government in managing and updating the database. It is expected that the new approach would reduce the exclusion and inclusion error of targeting.