OPM was contracted by UNICEF India to undertake a desk review of the dynamics of child labour in the cotton sector in India. The review involved analysis of research reports, NGO reports, budget information, and key informant interviews with government, private and civil-society stakeholders. The review focused on Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. The objectives of the study were to inform UNICEF and its partners on the opportunities and challenges in strengthening the protection of children and reducing their vulnerability to violence, abuse, and exploitation in the context of their involvement in cotton growing and cotton-growing states. In addition to providing an understanding of the current situation regarding children’s work and its impact on other critical dimensions of children’s rights (to protection, development, survival, and participation), the study provided information on existing policies, programmes, and interventions by government and civil society in order to identify intervention strategies.