OPM was contracted to help formulate focused communication strategies to raise awareness and empower families and communities to prevent and reduce child labour; and achieve desired behaviours and actions. This study was done in selected districts in four states (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra) and aimed to: 1) understand the practices, and trends related to children working in cotton and cotton-seed farming and the impact of child labour on children themselves, their families and the community; and 2) map the social, cultural, political and economic support structures within the communities that would facilitate and sustain the changed/new social norms related to a protective environment for children and reduced child labour. The study used innovative, mixed-method participatory research to arrive at a better understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices around child labour. Our approach to participatory and qualitative research retained the emphasis on broad interpretations, a need to engage key stakeholders, and being child centred. We used participatory techniques, focus group discussions, semi-structured (key informant) interviews and observation to inform the analysis.