This study was Component One of DFID’s Nigeria’s Drivers of Pro-Poor Change Initiative. This component aimed at identifying generic factors that could drive pro-poor change in Nigeria. The study sought to identify and summarise the various potential drivers for change that exist in Nigeria analyse the likely or confirmed strengths and weaknesses of these drivers in the short, medium and long term, and recommend which drivers are most likely to achieve pro-poor change in Nigeria. On the basis of this, the study identified a set of issues for more detailed follow-up and analytical work. The OPM team prepared a framework for understanding and applying the concept of Drivers of Change, based on a review of relevant political economy approaches and international experience. In addition, studies of key features of the Nigerian economy and political system were carried out with a view to identifying key potential drivers and agents of change. The findings were presented for discussion with DFID staff in Abuja.